How does radiation affect somatic cells?
Radiation may alter the DNA within any cell. Cell damage and death that result from mutations in somatic cells occur only in the organism in which the mutation occurred and are therefore termed somatic or nonheritable effects. Cancer is the most notable long-term somatic effect.
Are germ cells sensitive to radiation?
Results: Germ cells were highly sensitive to irradiation even at doses as low as 0.1 and 0.2 Gy. Indeed, for these doses, one third of germ cells died by apoptosis.
What cells are most affected by radiation?
Lymphocytes (white blood cells) and cells which produce blood are constantly regenerating, and are, therefore, the most sensitive. Reproductive and gastrointestinal cells are not regenerating as quickly and are less sensitive. The nerve and muscle cells are the slowest to regenerate and are the least sensitive cells.
What is the difference between somatic and genetic effects of radiation?
Genetic effects are those that occur in the descendants of a parent whose DNA molecules are modified due to exposure to ionizing radiation. Somatic effects are those which occur in the exposed individual. Genetic effects may affect subsequent unexposed generations; somatic effects are limited to the exposed individual.
How does radiation affect the cells?
Radiation works by damaging the genes (DNA) in cells. Genes control how cells grow and divide. When radiation damages the genes of cancer cells, they can’t grow and divide any more. Over time, the cells die.
How does radiation affect?
Exposure to very high levels of radiation, such as being close to an atomic blast, can cause acute health effects such as skin burns and acute radiation syndrome (“radiation sickness”). It can also result in long-term health effects such as cancer and cardiovascular disease.
What consequences can occur if ionizing radiation damages germ cells?
When ionising radiation acts upon gonads or germ cells, it may cause damage to the genetic material (mutations) which can lead to genetically induced diseases (hereditary defects). These may result in malformations, metabolic disorders, immune deficiencies etc.
What are the effects of radiation at the cellular level?
Radiation and electrons bombarded by radiation move haphazardly inside the cell, resulting in damage to the various molecules forming the cell. Chromosomal DNA inside the cell nucleus can also be damaged.
How does radiation damage cells?
They have very high levels of chemical reactivity, and therefore generate indiscriminate chemical reactions. Radiation and electrons bombarded by radiation move haphazardly inside the cell, resulting in damage to the various molecules forming the cell. Chromosomal DNA inside the cell nucleus can also be damaged.
What types of cells are most sensitive to radiation damage?
Cells in late G2 and mitosis (M-phase) are the most sensitive to radiation, and cells in late synthesis (S-phase) are the most resistant (Fig. 23.10).
What are some harmful effects of radiation on humans and the environment?
Radiation Effects on Humans
|5-20||Possible late effects; possible chromosomal damage.|
|20-100||Temporary reduction in white blood cells.|
|100-200||Mild radiation sickness within a few hours: vomiting, diarrhea, fatigue; reduction in resistance to infection.|
What are the somatic effects of radiation?
Somatic effects are those suffered by the exposed person. The most common impact of irradiation is the stochastic induction of cancer with a latent period of years or decades after exposure. Since cancer is the primary result, it is sometimes called the carcinogenic effect.
What is the genetic effect of radiation?
The genetic effect is suffered by the offspring of the individual exposed. It involves the mutation of very specific cells, namely the sperm or egg cells. Radiation is an example of a physical mutagenic agent.
Why are dividing cells more sensitive to radiation?
In general, dividing cells are more radiosensitive than nondividing cells (see above Effects on the cell ), with the result that radiation injury tends to appear soonest in those organs and tissues in which cells proliferate rapidly.
What are the effects of radiation on the human body?
The early effects of radiation on these organs result largely from the destruction of the progenitor cells and the consequent interference with the replacement of the mature cells, a process essential for the maintenance of normal tissue structure and function.