How does the immune system response to the flu?

The initial immune response involves cells of the body’s innate immune system, such as macrophages and neutrophils. These cells express receptors that are able to sense the presence of the virus. They then sound the alarm by producing small hormone-like molecules called cytokines and chemokines.

What is the chemical makeup of the flu?

The influenza C viruses have only one major surface glycoprotein, the hemagglutinin-esterase-fusion (HEF) protein, which corresponds functionally to the HA and NA of influenza A and B viruses, and one minor envelope protein, CM2 [1].

What enzyme does influenza use?

The enzyme that reproduces influenza RNA is known as an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. This enzyme, which consists of the viral proteins PA, PB1, and PB2, is present in every virus particle.

What are the immunodominant antigens of influenza?

The influenza B virus hemagglutinin contains four major antigenic sites (the 120 loop, the 150 loop, the 160 loop, and the 190 helix) within the head domain. These immunodominant antigenic sites are the main targets of neutralizing antibodies and are subject to antigenic drift.

What immune systems are involved in fighting the flu?

The humoral immune system produces antibodies against different influenza antigens, of which the HA-specific antibody is the most important for neutralization of the virus and thus prevention of illness.

Can you build immunity to the flu?

Researchers say your first flu infection in childhood can provide protection against similar flu viruses for the rest of your life.

What ingredients are in the flu shot 2021?

Here are some ingredients you’ll find in the flu shot:

  • Egg protein. Many flu vaccines are made by growing the viruses inside fertilized chicken eggs.
  • Preservatives. Vaccine manufacturers add the preservative thimerosal to multidose vaccine vials.
  • Stabilizers.
  • Antibiotics.
  • Polysorbate 80.
  • Formaldehyde.

What is the genetic material of influenza virus?

All influenza viruses consist of single-stranded RNA as opposed to dual-stranded DNA. The RNA genes of influenza viruses are made up of chains of nucleotides that are bonded together and coded by the letters A, C, G and U, which stand for adenine, cytosine, guanine, and uracil, respectively.

Is influenza lytic or lysogenic?

THE OUTCOME OF VIRAL INFECTION (1) The cell may lyse or be destroyed. This is usually called a lytic infection and this type of infection is seen with influenza and polio.

What system is affected by the flu?

Influenza is a viral infection that attacks your respiratory system — your nose, throat and lungs.

Do you get antibodies from the flu?

Following influenza infection or receipt of a flu vaccine, the body’s immune system develops antibodies that recognize and bind to “antigenic sites,” which are regions found on an influenza virus’ surface proteins.

Does the flu virus have spike proteins?

SARS-CoV-2 is covered in spike (S) proteins that facilitate invasion of host cells….Surface Proteins.

Viral Protein Function Influenza SAR-CoV-2
Entry into host cells HA S
Exit from host cells NA Not applicable

What type of reaction is a carboxylic acid?

Carboxylic acid reactions overview. A fourth bond links the carbon atom to a hydrocarbon group (R). The carboxyl (COOH) group is named after the carbonyl group (C=O) and hydroxyl group. In general, carboxylic acids undergo a nucleophilic substitution reaction where the nucleophile (-OH) is substituted by another nucleophile (Nu).

What happens when carboxylic acids react with thionyl chloride?

Carboxylic acids react with Thionyl Chloride ( S O C l 2) to form acid chlorides. During the reaction the hydroxyl group of the carboxylic acid is converted to a chlorosulfite intermediate making it a better leaving group. The chloride anion produced during the reaction acts a nucleophile.

How do carboxylic acids undergo nucleophilic substitution reactions?

In general, carboxylic acids undergo a nucleophilic substitution reaction where the nucleophile (-OH) is substituted by another nucleophile (Nu).

Why do carboxylic acids react with PCl3 to form acyl halides?

An unshared electron pair on the alkoxide ion oxygen moves in to help displace the leaving group. Carboxylic acids react with phosphorous trichloride (PCl 3 ), phosphorous pentachloride (PCl 5 ), thionyl chloride (SOC l 2 ), and phosphorous tribromide (PBr 3) to form acyl halides.