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A report is a small written work devoted to a specific topic, a review of sources in a particular area. Usually the purpose of a report is to collect and systematize knowledge on a specific topic or problem.

The subject of the report should fascinate, first of all, the student himself, because he will have to work hard on its disclosure. Subjects of reports, as a rule, are offered by teachers. The student chooses an interesting topic for him from the general list and coordinates his choice with the teacher.

In the course of the work, the student not only obtains information in a certain area, but also develops practical skills of analyzing scientific literature.

Below are the main requirements for the design of the work, but it should be remembered that some departments of the university have developed their own rules for the presentation of the report.

 

Report's structure

The report consists of an introduction, main text, conclusion and list of references. The report may contain an annex if necessary. Each part begins with a new page.

Headings should clearly and briefly reflect the content of sections, subsections. Headings should be capitalized. Word hyphenation is not allowed. If the heading consists of two sentences, they are separated by a dot. At the end of the title do not put an end. The distance between the title and the subsequent text should be at least 10 mm.

Title page

The title page is the first page of the report, filled in according to strictly defined rules and drawn up on a separate sheet of paper (download the sample).

Standards for registration of the title page may depend on the standards adopted at the department. Therefore, it is recommended to get acquainted with the works of predecessors, senior students. Nevertheless, there is a generally accepted standard for the design of the title page of the report.

Table of contents

Table of contents is placed after the title page. The word "Table of Contents" is written in the form of a title (in the center). In the table of contents are all the titles of the work and indicate the page. The table of contents should exactly repeat all the headings in the text.

The introduction of the report indicates the relevance of the topic of the report, the purpose of the report, the tasks that need to be solved in order to achieve this goal. In addition, the introduction of the report provides a brief description of the structure of the work and the information sources used (literature). The volume of the introduction for the report - 1-1,5 pages.

Main text

The main text is divided into chapters. If the text is quite voluminous, then the chapters are further divided into paragraphs. Chapters can be completed with conclusions, although this is not a requirement for a report. Chapters and paragraphs of the report are numbered. There is no dot after the number. The number of the paragraph of the report includes the number of the corresponding chapter, separated by a dot from its own number, for example: "1.3". Headings should not be hyphenated and underlined, but allowed to be in bold or italic.

If the report is small (total volume - 8-10 pages), then it cannot be divided into chapters, but simply indicates the "Main Part", which serves as the title of a single chapter. However, it is still preferable that the text be divided into chapters (at least two). Usually in the report 3-4 chapters. Each new chapter begins with a new page. The main part of the report accounts for 6-16 pages.

Conclusion

In conclusion, conclusions are drawn, and ways for further study of the topic are proposed. Here it is necessary to indicate why the issues addressed in the report are important and relevant. In the conclusion, answers to the tasks set in the introduction should be presented, a general conclusion should be formulated and a conclusion on the achievement of the report’s goal should be given. The conclusion should be brief, clear, conclusions should flow from the content of the main part.

Bibliography

In compiling the list of references should follow the generally accepted standards. References for the report - 4-12 positions. The works indicated in the list of references should be relatively new, issued in the last 5-10 years. Older sources can only be used if they are unique.

Applications

Applications must be numbered in Arabic numerals. In the upper right corner indicate: "Appendix 1", and from the new line - the name of the application.

Language formulations in the abstract should be short, clear and avoid ambiguous interpretations. When stated in the text, it is recommended to use impersonal constructions, avoiding personal pronouns (for example, “I”, “you”). Thus, in the abstract, it is better to write as follows: “In this paper, the problem of inflation in modern America is analyzed” (instead of “In this work, I analyze the problem of inflation in modern America”). To create impersonal constructions, you can use the words "should", "should", "necessary" and others. It is recommended to write (if possible) with short, simple sentences.

 

You must use the scientific writing style, which implies consistency, consistency and lack of expressiveness.

The report should be written in literary language and correctly designed. It is important to remember that in the work it is not recommended to use conversational speech, professionalism and other non-literary vocabulary. You should also avoid new abbreviations of words, however, the use of well-established abbreviations is allowed.

 

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