Is EBV lysogenic or lytic?
Abstract. Epstein-Barr virus, which mainly infects B cells and epithelial cells, has two modes of infection: latent and lytic. Epstein-Barr virus infection is predominantly latent; however, lytic infection is detected in healthy seropositive individuals and becomes more prominent in certain pathological conditions.
What is the lytic phase of EBV?
During this reactivation, a minority of B cells infected with EBV in its latent form enter the lytic phase. During this phase, all EBV proteins are produced, enabling the assembly of complete virions that lysate their host cells and infect neighboring cells (lytic cycle).
Where does Epstein-Barr virus replicate?
The Epstein-Barr virus efficiently infects human B cells. The EBV genome is maintained extrachromosomally and replicates synchronously with the host’s chromosomes. The latent origin of replication (oriP) guarantees plasmid stability by mediating two basic functions: replication and segregation of the viral genome.
Is EBV latent?
People who get symptoms from EBV infection, usually teenagers or adults, get better in two to four weeks. However, some people may feel fatigued for several weeks or even months. After you get an EBV infection, the virus becomes latent (inactive) in your body. In some cases, the virus may reactivate.
What type of virus is Epstein-Barr?
The Epstein–Barr virus (EBV), formally called Human gammaherpesvirus 4, is one of the nine known human herpesvirus types in the herpes family, and is one of the most common viruses in humans. EBV is a double-stranded DNA virus. It is best known as the cause of infectious mononucleosis (“mono” or “glandular fever”).
What are the steps of lytic cycle?
Description. The lytic cycle, which is also referred to as the “reproductive cycle” of the bacteriophage, is a six-stage cycle. The six stages are: attachment, penetration, transcription, biosynthesis, maturation, and lysis.
What is lytic infection?
Infection of a bacterium by a bacteriophage with subsequent production of more phage particles and lysis, or dissolution, of the cell. The viruses responsible are commonly called virulent phages. Lytic infection is one of the two major bacteriophage–bacterium relationships, the other being lysogenic infection.
What are the two life cycle strategies of EBV?
In the host, EBV can establish two alternative modes of life cycle, known as latent or lytic and the switch from latency to the lytic cycle is known as EBV reactivation.
What is the pathogenesis of EBV?
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) maintains a lifelong infection. According to the germinal center model (GCM), latently infected B cells transit the germinal center (GC) to become resting memory cells. Here, the virus resides quiescently, occasionally reactivating to infect new B cells, completing the cycle of infection.
Why is EBV latent?
EBV primarily infects the human oropharynx epithelial cells, and then replicates and spreads to B cells, resulting in latent infection in B cells, epithelial cells and natural killer/T cells after extensive host T-cell immune surveillance. Latent EBV infection substantially causes many human malignancies.
How does EBV become latent?
After you get an EBV infection, the virus becomes latent (inactive) in your body. In some cases, the virus may reactivate. This does not always cause symptoms, but people with weakened immune systems are more likely to develop symptoms if EBV reactivates.
What does EBV cause?
Epstein-Barr virus, or EBV, is one of the most common human viruses in the world. It spreads primarily through saliva. EBV can cause infectious mononucleosis, also called mono, and other illnesses. Most people will get infected with EBV in their lifetime and will not have any symptoms.
How is Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) lytic replication initiated?
Initiation of Epstein–Barr virus lytic replication requires transcription and the formation of a stable RNA–DNA hybrid molecule at OriLyt. J Virol85: 2837–2850 [PMC free article][PubMed] [Google Scholar] Rennekamp AJ, Wang P, Lieberman PM 2010. Evidence for DNA hairpin recognition by Zta at the Epstein–Barr virus origin of lytic replication.
What happens when EBV enters the cell?
Once EBV enters the cell, the viral capsid dissolves and the viral genome is transported to the cell nucleus . The lytic cycle, or productive infection, results in the production of infectious virions. EBV can undergo lytic replication in both B cells and epithelial cells.
What are the modes of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection?
Epstein-Barr virus, which mainly infects B cells and epithelial cells, has two modes of infection: latent and lytic. Epstein-Barr virus infection is predominantly latent; however, lytic infection is detected in healthy seropositive individuals and becomes more prominent in certain pathological conditions.
Which miRNAs are expressed during lytic Epstein-Barr virus replication?
The BHRF1 miRNAs are expressed during EBV latency III infection and its associated tumours, and two of the three pre-miRNAs are expressed during lytic EBV replication 101, 102 (Fig. 1 ). By contrast, the BART miRNAs are expressed in all EBV infection programmes, including EBV latency I and II, albeit at lower levels during latency I 102, 103.