What are furcation involvements?

Furcation is the anatomical area where the roots divide. Therefore, furcation defect (also called furcation involvement) refers to bone loss at the branching point of the roots. Furcation can only be present on multi-rooted teeth, not single-rooted teeth.

What is the treatment of furcation?

The basic principle of furcation treatment is the same as that for single-rooted teeth—cleaning of the root surface. Depending upon the severity of involvement and the complexity of the furcation morphology, supportive topical application of medicaments may be indicated during purely mechanical treatment.

What is a Class II furcation?

Grade II: Loss of interradicular bone and pocket formation but a portion of the alveolar bone and periodontal ligament remain intact. Grade III: Through-and-through lesion. Grade IV: Through-and-through lesion with gingival recession, leading to a clearly visible furcation area.

Which teeth have furcations?

Furcation Anatomy

  • Teeth typically have one, two or three roots.
  • The maxillary first premolars (that are bifurcated) have furcations that are midmesial and mid-distal, and are both located 7 mm from the CEJ.
  • The closer the furcation is to the CEJ, the easier it is for both the clinician and patient to access.

What does Bicuspidization mean?

bicuspidization (usually uncountable, plural bicuspidizations) (dentistry) The separation of the mesial and distal roots of a molar in order to eliminate a furcation and allow normal oral hygiene.

How are furcations measured?

To measure the depth of furcation involvement, a straight probe, like the UNC-15 probe with 1 mm markings, is inserted into the periodontal pocket along the root surface to locate the initial fluting of the furcation. Once located, the distance from the gingival margin to the opening of the furcation is noted.

How should you diagnose a furcation invasion?

Diagnosis of furcation involvement is based upon probing and radiographic findings. Although a straight periodontal probe may be used, detection of subgingival furcations is facilitated by the use of specially designed furcation probes (Nabers No I and No 2 probes).

How do you check furcation involvement?

How is furcation measured?

What does a tooth mobility classification of 3 signify?

Grade 3 is tooth mobility greater than 3 mm. Tooth is mobile in all planes and move vertically in its socket. Such a tooth is difficult to save and eventually lead to extraction.

How do you check furcations?

What is a furcation involvement in a tooth?

A furcation involvement exists when bone loss has extended into the bifurcation or tri-furcation of a multi-rooted tooth. The presence of furcation involvement in a molar poses multiple treatment challenges for the clinician and also for the patient who is trying to attain good plaque control.

What is the long-term outlook for teeth with furcation invasions?

The long-term outlook, or prognosis, for teeth with furcation invasions is improved by careful treatment and frequent maintenance, especially in the hands of an experienced hygienist working with a periodontist, or a dentist trained in the management of advanced periodontal disease.

What is the role of furcation in periodontics?

Furcation Involvement. Almost all forms of periodontal diseases are caused by the accumulations of bacterial biofilm (plaque). Therefore, the essential treatment is to keep the teeth free of these harmful bacteria and their related products, calculus and tartar, which accumulate on the root surfaces.

What is a furcation involvement?

Furcation Involvement A furcation involvement, also called a furcation invasion, is defined as an area of bone loss at this branching point of a tooth root. The bone loss results from periodontal (gum) disease.