What is NNN and NNK?

NNN and NNK are among the most important of the so-called tobacco-specific nitrosamines. These compounds are formed in tobacco leaves from nitrite and amines (proteins). Thus, NNN and NNK are not added to tobacco, but are produced through a natural process.

What is NNN nicotine?

NNN is a derivative of nicotine that is produced in the Curing of tobacco, in the burning of tobacco (such as with cigarettes), and in the acidic conditions of the stomach.

What are 5 carcinogens in cigarettes?

2002a; Singh et al. 2005). In summary, cigarette smoke contains diverse carcinogens. PAH, N-nitrosamines, aromatic amines, 1,3-butadiene, benzene, aldehydes, and ethylene oxide are probably the most important carcinogens because of their carcinogenic potency and levels in cigarette smoke.

What are three carcinogens in cigarettes?

Benzene. Carbon monoxide. Tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)

What is N Nitrosonornicotine?

Nitrosonornicotine is a yellow, oily liquid nitrosamine that solidifies at cold temperatures and emits toxic fumes of nitrogen oxides when heated to decomposition. Nitrosonornicotine is found in tobacco products and is likely produced by the nitrosation of nicotine during the making and smoking of tobacco products.

How is NNK produced?

NNK is both found in cured tobacco and is produced during its burning (pyrolysis). The amount of NNK delivered in cigarette smoke ranged from 30 to 280 ng/cigarette in one study and 12 to 110 ng/cigarette in another. Sun-cured tobaccos (a.k.a.

What is N-Nitrosonornicotine?

What is N-Nitrosonornicotine used for?

N-Nitrosonornicotine is a yellow, oily liquid which becomes a solid on standing. It is used as a laboratory chemical and is not produced commercially.

What are the 4000 chemicals in a cigarette?

Out of the 4000 chemicals, 69 of them are known as carcinogens i.e. cancer causing agents or poisonous chemicals like tar, nicotine and carbon monoxide. India is facing a smoking death crisis and it has been predicted that 1million people will die every year from tobacco smoking in the next 10 years.

What class carcinogen is tobacco?

Tobacco smoke has been classified by IARC as a Group 1 carcinogen (4). Examples of the chemicals which have been identified in tobacco smoke as carcinogens, and linked with the development of cancer, are presented in Table 2. Exposure to the carcinogens present in tobacco smoke increases the risk of developing cancer.

What type of carcinogen is a cigarette?

Two important classes of tobacco smoke carcinogens are the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and the nicotine-derived nitrosamines. Recent studies have indicated that there is a strong coincidence of G to T transversion hotspots in lung cancers and sites of preferential formation of PAH adducts along the p53 gene.