What is PPAR used for?

PPAR 𝛼 activators have been used to treat dyslipidemia, causing a reduction in plasma triglyceride and elevation of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. PPAR 𝛿 is expressed ubiquitously and is implicated in fatty acid oxidation and keratinocyte differentiation.

What is the meaning of PPAR?

In the field of molecular biology, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are a group of nuclear receptor proteins that function as transcription factors regulating the expression of genes.

How do PPARs work?

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) have central roles in the regulation of glucose and lipid homeostasis through their functions as molecular sensors that respond to endogenous ligands, leading to the modulation of gene expression.

Where are PPARs found?

PPAR are involved in various independent and DNA-dependent molecular and enzymatic pathways in adipose tissue, liver, and skeletal muscles.

What are PPAR drugs?

PPAR agonists are drugs which act upon the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor. They are used for the treatment of symptoms of the metabolic syndrome, mainly for lowering triglycerides and blood sugar.

Which is selective agonist of PPAR in diabetes?

Actos (pioglitazone) and Avandia (rosiglitazone) are potent TZD agonists of PPARγ, which induce remarkable insulin sensitization and improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes7,8.

How are PPARs activated?

PPARs are transcription factors, activated by binding key metabolic ligands, which exert their effects at the level of DNA to alter gene expression.

Where are PPAR receptors?

Subtypes of PPAR Receptors PPARα is highly expressed in the muscle, heart, kidney, liver, and small and large intestine, being a target of fibrate hypolipidemic drugs implicated mainly in the catabolism of fatty acids and their oxidation (Issemann et al., 1993; Schoonjans et al., 1996).

What are PPARs and how do they impact lipid metabolism?

PPARs function as regulators of lipid and lipoprotein metabolism and glucose homeostasis and influence cellular proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. PPARalpha is highly expressed in tissues such as liver, muscle, kidney and heart, where it stimulates the beta-oxidative degradation of fatty acids.

What is Pparg gene?

PPARG (Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor Gamma) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PPARG include Lipodystrophy, Familial Partial, Type 3 and Body Mass Index Quantitative Trait Locus 11. Among its related pathways are Metabolism and Noncanonical Wnt signaling pathway.

Is PPAR a transcription factor?

PPARs are a class of ligand-activated transcription factors belonging to the superfamily of receptors for steroid and thyroid hormones, retinoids and vitamin D that control the expression of a large number of genes involved in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism and in the regulation of cell proliferation.

What drug activates PPAR-alpha?

PPARs can also be activated by synthetic ligands which fall into two major classes: fibrates and thiazolidinediones (TZDs). Fibrates, which include fenofibrate, ciprofibrate, clofibrate, and gemfibrozil, predominantly target PPARα and are used to treat dyslipidemia.