What stains are used in immunohistochemistry?

Common counterstains include hematoxylin, eosin, nuclear fast red, methyl green, DAPI, and Hoechst fluorescent stain. The following representative example, Hoechst fluorescent dye was used as a counterstain for IHC detection of the protein, vimentin.

How does immunohistochemistry staining work?

Contents. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) uses antibodies to detect the location of proteins and other antigens in tissue sections. The antibody-antigen interaction is visualized using either chromogenic detection with a colored enzyme substrate, or fluorescent detection with a fluorescent dye.

What is immunochemistry used for?

Immunohistochemistry is used to help diagnose diseases, such as cancer. It may also be used to help tell the difference between different types of cancer.

What is immunological staining?

In biochemistry, immunostaining is any use of an antibody-based method to detect a specific protein in a sample. The term “immunostaining” was originally used to refer to the immunohistochemical staining of tissue sections, as first described by Albert Coons in 1941.

What is histological staining?

Histological staining is a series of technique processes undertaken in the preparation of sample tissues by staining using histological stains to aid in the microscope study (Anderson, 2011).

What is focal staining?

Abnormal staining was defined as total loss of protein in the tumor with appropriate control. Cases with focal and weak staining, defined as staining of no more than moderate intensity present in <10% of the tumor cells, were recorded. Correlation analysis with germline mutation data was in a subset of cases.

What are immunohistochemistry techniques?

Abstract. Immunohistochemical techniques detect antigens in tissue sections by means of immunological and chemical reactions. This technique is highly sensitive and specific and can detect a wide variety of antigens in multiple animal species.

What are the steps of immunohistochemistry?

A general immunohistochemistry protocol consists of four main steps:

  • Fixation—to keep everything in its place.
  • Antigen retrieval—to increase the availability of proteins for detection.
  • Blocking—to minimize pesky background signals.
  • Antibody labeling and visualization—to get the pretty pictures.

What are the advantages of immunohistochemistry?

The advantages of IHC include: It is possible to use fresh or frozen tissue samples for IHC. IHC is well-established and readily available. The cost of IHC is relatively low.

How long does it take to do immunohistochemistry?

It may take about two to 10 days for results to be finalized and presented to you after a biopsy procedure. The diagnostic process can be longer or shorter, depending on the number of tests performed and their complexity. IHC tests typically only take one day longer than routine tests.

What does TMA stand for and what are they useful for?

Abstract. The tissue microarray (TMA) technology provides the means for high-throughput analysis of multiple tissues and cells. The technique is used within the Human Protein Atlas project for global analysis of protein expression patterns in normal human tissues, cancer and cell lines.

What is the most common stain used in histology?

Hematoxylin is the most commonly used nuclear stain in histology and pathology although, despite its long use and honorable history, the chemistry of the dye is still not fully understood.