What are the types of drug resistance?

Antimicrobial resistance mechanisms fall into four main categories: (1) limiting uptake of a drug; (2) modifying a drug target; (3) inactivating a drug; (4) active drug efflux.

What are the two types of antibiotic resistance?

There are two important types of genetic mechanisms that can give rise to antibiotic resistance: mutation and acquisition of new genetic material.

What is drug resistance biology?

Drug resistance—or antimicrobial resistance—is the phenomenon by which pathogens destroy the effectiveness of drugs. The end result is always increased morbidity or death of the patient.

What is drug resistance in microbiology?

Antibiotic resistance happens when germs like bacteria and fungi develop the ability to defeat the drugs designed to kill them. That means the germs are not killed and continue to grow. More than 2.8 million antibiotic-resistant infections occur in the U.S. each year.

What is drug resistance write its type and mechanism of drug resistance?

Mechanisms of Acquired Drug Resistance:

Mechanism Antimicrobial Agent
Destroy drug Aminoglycoside Beta-lactam antibiotics (penicillin and cephalosporin) Chloramphenicol
Alters drug target Aminoglycosides Beta-lactam antibiotics (penicillin and cephalosporin) Erythromycin Quinolones Rifampin Trimethoprim

What are drug resistant infections?

Drug-resistant infections is a term we use to describe illnesses that have been caused by resistant microbes, resulting in an infection that is much harder – or potentially impossible – to treat.

What causes antibiotic resistance?

Antibiotic resistance is accelerated when the presence of antibiotics pressure bacteria and fungi to adapt. Antibiotics and antifungals kill some germs that cause infections, but they also kill helpful germs that protect our body from infection. The antibiotic-resistant germs survive and multiply.

What does drug resistance mean from a genetic standpoint?

XDR. What does drug resistance mean from a genetic standpoint? The organism contains genes that code for the ability to withstand the drug’s effects.

Which describes the difference between a secondary infection and a superinfection?

A superinfection is a type of secondary infection that develops when antibiotics taken to treat a particular pathogen do not completely kill all of that original pathogen. D. A secondary infection is a type of superinfection that develops when the pathogen mutates in response to the antimicrobial agent.

What is the difference between intrinsic and acquired resistance?

There are two types of bacterial resistance: intrinsic and acquired. In intrinsic resistance, the antibiotic never possessed activity against the pathogen (TABLE 3). Acquired resistance is achieved through the transfer of genetic material that confers resistance.

What is the meaning of drug resistance?

1. Meaning of Drug Resistance: Antimicrobial drug resistance refers to the acquired ability of a microbial pathogen to resist the effects of a therapeutic agent (antimicrobial drug) to which it is normally susceptible. Drug resistance does not involve the host, but is a function of the microbial pathogen present inside the host.

What is the pathophysiology of drug resistance in pathogens?

Microbial pathogenes possess resistance strategy by which they pump the drug out of the cell after it has entered. Some pathogens have plasma membrane translocases, often called efflux pumps, that expel drugs.

How to prevent the emergence of drug resistance?

Drug-Resistance Encounter: Various strategies can be used to encounter the emergence of drug resistance. Following are some specific modes proposed to use drugs to discourage the emergence of drug resistance: (i) The drug can be used in a high enough concentration.

What is drug resistance in HIV/AIDS?

Drug resistance is simply defined as the ability of disease-causing germs (e.g., bacteria or viruses) to continue multiplying despite the presence of drugs that usually kill them. With HIV, drug resistance is caused by changes (mutations) in the virus’s genetic structure.